In Gelman and Nolan’s paper “You Can Load a Die, But You Can’t Bias a Coin” The American Statistician, November 2002, Vol. 56, No. 4 it is argued you can’t easily produce a coin that is biased when flipped (and caught). A number of variations that can be easily biased (such as spinning) are also discussed.
Obviously Gelman and Nolan are smart and careful people. And we are discussing a well-regarded peer-reviewed article. So we don’t expect there is a major error. What we say is the abstraction they are using doesn’t match the physical abstraction I would pick. I pick a different one and I get different results. This is what I would like to discuss. Continue reading I still think you can manufacture an unfair coin