Very roughly vtreat accepts an arbitrary “from the wild” data frame (with different column types, NAs, NaNs and so forth) and returns a transformation that reliably and repeatably converts similar data frames to numeric (matrix-like) frames (all independent variables numeric free of NA, NaNs, infinities, and so on) ready for predictive modeling. This is a systematic way to work with high-cardinality character and factor variables (which are incompatible with some machine learning implementations such as random forest, and also bring in a danger of statistical over-fitting) and leaves the analyst more time to incorporate domain specific data preparation (as vtreat tries to handle as much of the common stuff as practical). For more of an overall description please see here.
We suggest any users please update (and you will want to re-run any “design” steps instead of mixing “design” and “prepare” from two different versions of vtreat).
Nina Zumel introduced y-aware scaling in her recent article Principal Components Regression, Pt. 2: Y-Aware Methods. I really encourage you to read the article and add the technique to your repertoire. The method combines well with other methods and can drive better predictive modeling results.
From feedback I am not sure everybody noticed that in addition to being easy and effective, the method is actually novel (we haven’t yet found an academic reference to it or seen it already in use after visiting numerous clients). Likely it has been applied before (as it is a simple method), but it is not currently considered a standard method (something we would like to change).
We are pleased to announce a new free e-book from Manning Publications: Exploring Data Science. Exploring Data Science is a collection of five chapters hand picked by John Mount and Nina Zumel, introducing you to various areas in data science and explaining which methodologies work best for each.
In this example we are going to show what building a predictive model using vtreat best practices looks like assuming you were somehow already in the habit of using vtreat for your data preparation step. We are deliberately not going to explain any steps, but just show the small number of steps we advise routinely using. This is a simple schematic, but not a guide. Of course we do not advise use without understanding (and we work hard to teach the concepts in our writing), but want what small effort is required to add vtreat to your predictive modeling practice.
In our previous note we demonstrated Y-Aware PCA and other y-aware approaches to dimensionality reduction in a predictive modeling context, specifically Principal Components Regression (PCR). For our examples, we selected the appropriate number of principal components by eye. In this note, we will look at ways to select the appropriate number of principal components in a more automated fashion.
One package of interest is ranger a fast parallel C++ implementation of random forest machine learning. Ranger is great package and at first glance appears to remove the “only 63 levels allowed for string/categorical variables” limit found in the Fortran randomForest package. Actually this appearance is due to the strange choice of default value respect.unordered.factors=FALSE in ranger::ranger() which we strongly advise overriding to respect.unordered.factors=TRUE in applications. Continue reading On ranger respect.unordered.factors
In our previous note, we discussed some problems that can arise when using standard principal components analysis (specifically, principal components regression) to model the relationship between independent (x) and dependent (y) variables. In this note, we present some dimensionality reduction techniques that alleviate some of those problems, in particular what we call Y-Aware Principal Components Analysis, or Y-Aware PCA. We will use our variable treatment package vtreat in the examples we show in this note, but you can easily implement the approach independently of vtreat.
I’ve been editing a two-part three-part series Nina Zumel is writing on some of the pitfalls of improperly applied principal components analysis/regression and how to avoid them (we are using the plural spelling as used in following Everitt The Cambridge Dictionary of Statistics). The series is looking absolutely fantastic and I think it will really help people understand, properly use, and even teach the concepts.
The series includes fully worked graphical examples in R and is why we added the ScatterHistN plot to WVPlots (plot shown below, explained in the upcoming series).
Frankly the material would have worked great as an additional chapter for Practical Data Science with R (but instead everybody is going to get it for free).
Please watch here for the series.
The complete series is now up: