In our article What is a large enough random sample? we pointed out that if you wanted to measure a proportion to an accuracy “a” with chance of being wrong of “d” then a idea was to guarantee you had a sample size of at least:

This is the central question in designing opinion polls or running A/B tests. This estimate comes from a quick application of Hoeffding’s inequality and *because* it has a simple form it is possible to see that accuracy is very expensive (to halve the size of difference we are trying to measure we have to multiply the sample size by four) and the cheapness of confidence (increases in the required confidence or significance of a result cost only moderately in sample size).

However, for high-accuracy situations (when you are trying to measure two effects that are very close to each other) suggesting a sample size that is larger than is strictly necessary (as we are using an bound, not an exact formula for the required sample size). As a theorist or a statistician we like to error on the side of too large a sample (guaranteeing reliability), but somebody who is paying for each entry in a poll would want a smaller size.

This article shows a function that computes the exact size needed (using R). Continue reading →

We describe ergodic theory in modern notation accessible to interested computer scientists.

The ergodic theorem (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ergodic theory (link)) is an important principle of recurrence and averaging in dynamical systems. However, there are some inconsistent uses of the term, much of the machinery is intended to work with deterministic dynamical systems (not probabilistic systems, as is often implied) and often the conclusion of the theory is mis-described as its premises.

By “interested computer scientists” we mean people who know math and work with probabilistic systems1, but know not to accept mathematical definitions without some justification (actually a good attitude for mathematicians also). Continue reading →

## Introduction

To implement many numeric simulations you need a sophisticated source of instances of random variables. The question is: how do you generate them?

The literature is full of algorithms requiring random samples as inputs or drivers (conditional random fields, Bayesian network models, particle filters and so on). The literature is also full of competing methods (pseudorandom generators, entropy sources, Gibbs samplers, Metropolis–Hastings algorithm, Markov chain Monte Carlo methods, bootstrap methods and so on). Our thesis is: this diversity is supported by only a few fundamental methods. And you are much better off thinking in terms of a few deliberately simple composable mechanisms than you would be in relying on some hugely complicated black box “brand name” technique.

We will discuss the half dozen basic methods that all of these techniques are derived from. Continue reading →

With the well deserved popularity of A/B testing computer scientists are finally becoming practicing statisticians. One part of experiment design that has always been particularly hard to teach is how to pick the size of your sample. The two points that are hard to communicate are that:

- The required sample size is essentially
*independent* of the total population size.
- The required sample size
*depends* strongly on the strength of the effect you are trying to measure.

These things are only hard to explain because the literature is overly technical (too many buzzwords and too many irrelevant concerns) and these misapprehensions can’t be relieved unless you spend some time addressing the legitimate underlying concerns they are standing in for. As usual explanation requires common ground (moving to shared assumptions) not mere technical bullying.

We will try to work through these assumptions and then discuss proper sample size. Continue reading →

## The Applied Theorist's Point of View